Tuesday, May 23, 2017

USA Africa Dialogue Series - STAR WARNING: The Disruptive Predictions for TaaS - Transportation as a Service


My People:

Please do not roll your eyes - we may be future-shocked again in oil-imbued Nigeria - nay Africa - to our detriment if we do not pay attention to the ongoing Electric Vehicle revolution, and its future economic, environmental, geopolitical and social impacts on our country, our continent and the world. Otherwise, we will be poorer for it, locking ourselves into  "expensive, obsolete, uncompetitive assets, technologies and skill sets."

By the way, there is already Uber in Nigeria!

And there you have it.



Bolaji Aluko


_________________________________________________________________


Rethinking Transportation 2020-2030 
The Disruption of Transportation and the Collapse of the Internal-Combustion Vehicle and Oil Industries

A RethinkX Sector Disruption Report 
May 2017 
James Arbib & Tony Seba


Executive Summary

We are on the cusp of one of the fastest, deepest, most consequential
disruptions of transportation in history. By 2030, within 10 years of
regulatory approval of autonomous vehicles (AVs), 95% of U.S. passenger
miles traveled will be served by on-demand autonomous electric vehicles
owned by fleets, not individuals, in a new business model we call "transport-as-a-service" (TaaS). The TaaS disruption will have enormous implications
across the transportation and oil industries, decimating entire portions
of their value chains, causing oil demand and prices to plummet, and
destroying trillions of dollars in investor value — but also creating trillions of
dollars in new business opportunities, consumer surplus and GDP growth.

The disruption will be driven by economics. Using TaaS, the average
American family will save more than $5,600 per year in transportation costs,
equivalent to a wage raise of 10%. This will keep an additional $1 trillion
per year in Americans' pockets by 2030, potentially generating the largest
infusion of consumer spending in history.

We have reached this conclusion through exhaustive analysis of data,
market, consumer and regulatory dynamics, using well-established cost
curves and assuming only existing technology. This report presents
overwhelming evidence that mainstream analysis is missing, yet again, the
speed, scope and impact of technology disruption. Unlike those analyses,
which produce linear and incremental forecasts, our modeling incorporates
systems dynamics, including feedback loops, network effects and market
forces, that better reflect the reality of fast-paced technology-adoption
S-curves. These systems dynamics, unleashed as adoption of TaaS begins,
will create a virtuous cycle of decreasing costs and increasing quality of
service and convenience, which will in turn drive further adoption along an
exponential S-curve. Conversely, individual vehicle ownership, especially
of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, will enter a vicious cycle of
increasing costs, decreasing convenience and diminishing quality of service.
.......


The impacts of TaaS disruption are far reaching

Economic

ê Savings on transportation costs will result in a permanent boost in
annual disposable income for U.S. households, totaling $1 trillion by
2030. Consumer spending is by far the largest driver of the economy,
comprising about 71% of total GDP and driving business and job growth
throughout the economy.3

ê Productivity gains as a result of reclaimed driving hours will boost GDP
by an additional $1 trillion.

ê As fewer cars travel more miles, the number of passenger vehicles on
American roads will drop from 247 million to 44 million, opening up vast
tracts of land for other, more productive uses. Nearly 100 million existing
vehicles will be abandoned as they become economically unviable.

ê Demand for new vehicles will plummet: 70% fewer passenger cars
and trucks will be manufactured each year. This could result in total
disruption of the car value chain, with car dealers, maintenance and
insurance companies suffering almost complete destruction. Car
manufacturers will have options to adapt, either as low-margin, highvolume
assemblers of A-EVs, or by becoming TaaS providers. Both
strategies will be characterized by high levels of competition, with new
entrants from other industries. The value in the sector will be mainly
in the vehicle operating systems, computing platforms and the TaaS
platforms.

ê The transportation value chain will deliver 6 billion passenger miles in
2030 (an increase of 50% over 2021) at a quarter of the cost ($393
billion versus $1.481 billion).

ê Oil demand will peak at 100 million barrels per day by 2020, dropping
to 70 million barrels per day by 2030. That represents a drop of 30
million barrels in real terms and 40 million barrels below the Energy
Information Administration's current "business as usual" case. This will
have a catastrophic effect on the oil industry through price collapse
(an equilibrium cost of $25.4 per barrel), disproportionately impacting
different companies, countries, oil fields and infrastructure depending on
their exposure to high-cost oil.

ê The impact of the collapse of oil prices throughout the oil industry value
chain will be felt as soon as 2021.

ê In the U.S., an estimated 65% of shale oil and tight oil — which under a
"business as usual" scenario could make up over 70% of the U.S. supply
in 2030 — would no longer be commercially viable.

ê Approximately 70% of the potential 2030 production of Bakken shale
oil would be stranded under a 70 million barrels per day demand
assumption.

ê Infrastructure such as the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines
would be stranded, as well.

ê Other areas facing volume collapse include offshore sites in the United
Kingdom, Norway and Nigeria; Venezuelan heavy-crude fields; and the
Canadian tar sands.

ê Conventional energy and transportation industries will suffer substantial
job loss. Policies will be needed to mitigate these adverse effects.
 


Environmental

ê The TaaS disruption will bring dramatic reductions or elimination of air
pollution and greenhouse gases from the transport sector, and improved
public health. The TaaS transport system will reduce energy demand
by 80% and tailpipe emissions by over 90%. Assuming a concurrent
disruption of the electricity infrastructure by solar and wind, we may see
a largely carbon-free road transportation system by 2030.


Geopolitical

ê The geopolitical importance of oil will vastly diminish. However,
the speed and scale of the collapse in oil revenues may lead to the
destabilization of oil-producing countries and regions with high
dependence on oil "rents." This may create a new category of geopolitical
risks. The geopolitics of lithium and other key mineral inputs to A-EVs
are entirely different from oil politics. There will be no "Saudi Arabia of
lithium." Lithium is a stock, while oil is a flow. Disruption in supply of the
former does not impact service delivery. (See page 54 for further detail.)
 
ê Other areas facing volume collapse include offshore sites in the United
Kingdom, Norway and Nigeria; Venezuelan heavy-crude fields; and the
Canadian tar sands.

ê Conventional energy and transportation industries will suffer substantial
job loss. 

Policies will be needed to mitigate these adverse effects.


Social

ê TaaS will dramatically lower transportation costs; increase mobility and
access to jobs, education and health care (especially for those restricted
in today's model, like the elderly and disabled); create trillions of dollars
in consumer surplus; and contribute to cleaner, safer and more walkable
communities.

ê We foresee a merging of public and private transportation and a pathway
to free transportation in the TaaS Pool model (a subset of TaaS that
entails sharing a ride with other people who are not in the passenger's
family or social group — the equivalent of today's Uber Pool or Lyft Line).
Corporations might sponsor vehicles or offer free transport to market
goods or services to commuters (i.e. Starbucks Coffee on wheels4).

ê The role of public transportation authorities (PTA) will change
dramatically from owning and managing transportation assets, to
managing TaaS providers to ensure equitable, universal access to lowcost
transportation. Many municipalities will see free TaaS as a means
to improve citizens' access to jobs, shopping, entertainment, education,
health and other services within their communities.


Conclusion

The aim of this research is to start a conversation and focus decisionmakers'
attention on the scale, speed and impact of the impending
disruption in the transportation and oil sectors. Investors and policymakers
will face choices in the near term that will have lasting impact. At critical
junctures, their decisions will either help accelerate or slow down the
transition to TaaS. Follow-on analysis by RethinkX will look more closely at
each of these junctures and at the implications of potential decisions.

Many decisions will be driven by economic advantages (including return on
investment, productivity gains, time savings, reduced infrastructure costs
and GDP growth) as well as by social and environmental considerations
(including fewer traffic deaths and injuries, increased access to mobility and
emissions reductions). But other decisions may be influenced by incumbent
industries seeking to delay or derail the disruption. Given the winners-takeall
nature of the A-EV race, early movers to TaaS stand to gain outsized
benefits.

Our main aim in starting this conversation is to provide an evidencedriven
systems analysis that helps decision-makers who might otherwise
rely purely on mainstream analysis. Decisions made based on the latter
risk locking in investments and infrastructure that are sub-optimal —
economically, socially and environmentally — and that will eventually lead
to stranded assets. These sub-optimal decisions tend to make societies
poorer by locking them into expensive, obsolete, uncompetitive assets,
technologies and skill sets.



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SV: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Digest for usaafric...@googlegroups.com - 1 update in 1 topic

You should read me sequentially and not fragmentarily. The Chibok girls were abducted and transported to the area controlled by Boko Haram. Take note that part of Nigeria controlled by Boko Haram at the time under reference was 50, 000 square kilometre in size which was bigger than the geographical area of Royal Kingdom of Denmark. Does anyone need to wait for BBC's figure to understand/know that the number of women in the Boko Haram captured territory of Nigeria were hundreds of thousands? When Buhari attained power, Boko Haram were militarily driven out of the occupied territory of Nigeria and all inhabitants, including women, were liberated. Thus, your comrade, Ogbuagu Anikwe, was wrong to write that more than 700 women had been rescued since Buhari came to power and none of them was Chibok's girl. Contrary to Anikwe's assertion, 21 Chibok's girls were released in October 2016.


The Chibok's girls were actually kidnapped/abducted and, unless you intend to fetch water with a basket, you should not lump Chibok girls together with hundred thousands of women living in the Boko Haram captured territory of Nigeria.

S. Kadiri
 




Från: usaafricadialogue@googlegroups.com <usaafricadialogue@googlegroups.com> för Cornelius Hamelberg <corneliushamelberg@gmail.com>
Skickat: den 21 maj 2017 00:24
Till: USA Africa Dialogue Series
Ämne: Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Digest for usaafric...@googlegroups.com - 1 update in 1 topic
 

Ogbeni Kadiri,

Re - your little altercation with Ogbuagu Anikwe :

The figure on which your postulate was based, that, "Premised on the aforesaid, I argued that if access to women was the major cause of Northern Muslim youths joining the sect, how would the kidnap of 300 Chibok girls satisfy that need? Then you interjected with this, "More than 700 women and girls have been rescued from BH since Buhari came to power, none of them identified to be among the Chibok victims. Many more are said to be in captivity."

You imagine that the kidnap of a 300 girls would not satisfy "that need"...

According to the BBC,

"The Chibok girls represent a fraction of the women captured by the militant group, estimates for which number in the thousands."

Certainly not a major cause.

L'eau



On Tuesday, 25 April 2017 00:19:58 UTC+2, ogunlakaiye wrote:

Think, if I had stopped reading Ogbuagu Anikwe when I discovered that he misspelled my first name, how would I have discovered his disinformation about more than 700 rescued women? As I have previously established, beyond any reasonable doubt, access to free sex was not the cause of Boko Haram's insurgency  and could not have been the cause of male-Muslim youths joining them as originally asserted by Moses Ochonu. In fact, Quran 5 : 5 compels males to practise chastity and not to, commit illegal sexual intercourse or, take women as girl friends. Premised on the aforesaid, I argued that if access to women was the major cause of Northern Muslim youths joining the sect, how would the kidnap of 300 Chibok girls satisfy that need? Then you interjected with this, "More than 700 women and girls have been rescued from BH since Buhari came to power, none of them identified to be among the Chibok victims. Many more are said to be in captivity."


Your figure of rescued 700 women and girls from 'Boko Haram (?)' since Buhari came to power is a simplistic missinformation. The land territory controlled by 'Boko Haram (?)' in the Northeast of Nigeria before Buhari came to power contained not only more than 2 million women and girls but men. This is because, between April and November 2014, the Islamic sect (Boko Haram?) had captured a 50,000 Sq. Kilometres land territory in the Northeast of Nigeria which they declared a caliphate. Bama the second largest city in Bornu State was captured by the Islamic sect in September 2014. Similar fate befell  Gwoza and Mubi which the sect renamed Darul Hikma (house of wisdom) and Madinatul Islam (city of Islam) respectively.  You may wish to know that the land territory under the control of the Islamic sect was bigger than Royal Kingdom of Danmark which has a land area of 43,093 Sq. Kilometre. As at Monday, 10 November 2014, the military success of the Islamic sect was so alarming to the effect that Nigeria's Ambassador to the United States, Ade Adefuye, told a delegation of the US Council on Foreign Relations visiting the Nigerian Embassy thus, "I am sad to inform you that the Nigerian leadership: military and political, and even the general populace, are not satisfied with the scope, nature and content of the United States' support for us in our struggle against terrorists. We find it difficult to understand how and why in spite of the US presence in Nigeria with their sophisticated military technology, Boko Haram should be expanding and becoming more deadly." The simple logic here is that the 50,000Sq.Kilometres land territory under the control of the sect contained men and women who could not abandon their place of abode during the sect's occupation. When Buhari came in with a new approach to the war and reshuffled the military leaderships, those territories were recaptured and both men, women and children were freed from the rule of the sect. A rescue operation by the Federal forces would have implied releasing only the  captives while the sect would have  continued to occupy part of the Nigerian territory.


Contrary to your assertion that no Chibok's girl was rescued since Buhari took over power, it is on record that the Presidency announced the release of 21 Chibok girls on October 13, 2016. The 21 girls were picked up by military helicopter from Banki area of Bornu State where Boko Haram had dropped them on 12 October 2016. The Governor of Bornu State, Kashim Shettima, disclosed on the same day that the release of the 21 girls was negotiated. Buhari met the 21 Chibok girls on 19 October 2016 before departing to Germany on a State visit.


The negotiated release of the 21 Chibok girls to me is a ruse because the Chief of Army Staff, Lt. General Tukur Buratai had declared on 25 February 2016 that the military had entered mop up phase in the fight against Boko Haram which would facilitate the release of captives, including Chibok girls. http://saharareporters.com/2016/02/25/boko-haram-defeated-chibok-girls-rescue-under-way-says-buratai/ 

The same Buratai announced the capture of Boko Haram's Camp Zero in the heart of Sambisa Forest at 13:35:00 hours on Friday, December 23, 2016. Buhari congratulated the Army on Saturday December 2016 for their success in what was described as Operation Lafia Dole against Boko Haram. If Boko Haram were dislodged from their headquarter in Sambisa forest where were the rest of Chibok girls?


Commentator, Ogbuagu Anikwe, wrote, "There is no record of when the kidnappings of these non-Chibok females took place, unlike the Chibok haul, these could have (been) before or after 14 April 2014." It is amusing when a fingerless leper claims always finishing whatever he lays his fingers upon. There has never been any exact official record of how many Chibok girls were abducted on 14 April 2014. And the postulation that "there is no record of when the kidnapping of these non-Chibok females took place," is a strange  intellectual wisdom of raising zero to the power of a million. My friend, I hope you will read this to the end otherwise you will never know that zero exponent million is Zero!!

S.Kadiri      

     
 




Från: usaafric...@googlegroups.com <usaafric...@googlegroups.com> för Ogbuagu Anikwe <oan...@gmail.com>
Skickat: den 23 april 2017 06:08
Till: usaafric...@googlegroups.com
Ämne: Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Digest for usaafric...@googlegroups.com - 1 update in 1 topic
 

I stopped reading Salomon Kadiri's at this point:

"The abduction of Chibok girls occurred on 14 April 2014, which gave a time space of 12 years. Before 14th April 2014, there was no known abduction of girls by 'Boko Haram(?).' A commonsense questions that should be asked are, did 'Boko Haram's(?)' men sexual appetites die between 2002 and 13th April 2014 but were suddenly awoken on April 14, 2014? If easy access to sex is what attracted Northern Youths to 'Boko Haram(?)', how could access to sex have been fulfilled through the abduction of only three-hundred Chibok girls? Apart from the Chibok girls, why were there no further kidnappings of girls since..."

COMMENT
More than 700 women and girls have been rescued from BH dens since Buhari came to power, none of them identified to be among the Chibok victims. Many more are said to be in captivity.

There is no record of when the kidnappings of these non-Chibok females took place, unlike the Chibok haul; these could have before or after 14 April 2014, and this effectively knocks off the only leg of the argument that was standing at the point I stopped reading.

I believe a new and more sustainable argument is called for.

On 21-Apr-2017 11:53 pm, <usaafric...@googlegroups.com> wrote:
Salimonu Kadiri <ogunl...@hotmail.com>: Apr 21 08:36PM

However, I will continue to back Moses Ochonu's provocateur on a psycho-analytic examination of human motivation to horrendous mass action because it has been proven to be a useful (if difficult & technical tool) of social scientific and historical analysis. It is not a populist field in view of the highly technical manner of its investigative approaches and reactions so far had proven some of us trained in its intricacies right - Olayinka Agbetuyi.
 
 
You would have been telling the truth if Moses Ochonu's lecture at the University of Pittsburg had called for psycho-analytic examination of human motivation to horrendous mass action like the one allegedly perpetrated by "Boko Haram." The Christian name of the Lecturer at Pittsburg University is Moses, a Hebrew name from the Middle East. If his parents were Islamists, they would probably have named him Musa, also a Middle East Arabic equivalent name for Moses. I suspect that the majority of the audience at the University of Pittsburg, where Moses Ochonu lectured, must have been Christians and non-Africans (or non-Nigerians). He was not only being politically correct to the Christian majority listeners at his lecture, he was also selling himself to them by sinking Muslims in Northern part of Nigeria into sewage tank. Hear him, "Muslim-majority Northern Nigeria houses a sexual economy into which access to sex and the female body, whether mediated marriage or concubinage, is almost exclusively reserved for older, mostly Western educated, well off men."
 
"The region, moreover, is a home to a culture of sexual repression in which the expression and pursuit of desire is constrained by status and financial resources. The result is that sexual frustration coexists with and is exacerbated by the inability of young, uneducated and thus unemployable Muslim youth to access sexual resources and other benefits of heterosexual relationships."
 
"The rejection of Nigerian secular society and the concomitant allure of terrestrial caliphate or an extra-terrestrial paradise is intensified when the indoctrinated Muslim youth sees Western educated co-religionists and Christians engage in both licit and illicit sexual relationships with women. This is one of the silent but rarely acknowledged drivers of youth vulnerability to extremist indoctrination in Northern Nigeria."
 
"It is no coincidence that rapes, the kidnap of young girls, and sexual crimes have been rife within the ranks Boko Haram. Raids on the camps of Boko Haram have consistently turned up Viagra and other sexual enhancement drugs as well as condoms in large quantities." In the afore-cited statements from Moses Ochonu's lecture at the University of Pittsburg, nowhere was it indicated that he was calling for psychoanalytic examination of human motivation to horrendous mass action in general. 'Boko Haram (?)' might have committed criminal acts, but it is a product of the most horrible criminals in Nigeria, which are the political class and the intellectuals that serve under them in the Ministries, Departments, Agencies and parastatals. Any psychoanalytic examination of human motivation to horrendous mass action in Nigeria must start from the political class ruling Nigeria and the intellectuals serving under them. 'Boko Haram(?)' is just a stem in the tree of the evil in Nigeria and the best way to deal with the evil tree is to uproot it and not to just prune its stem.
 
 
Before attending to the questions raised by you, I must express my dissatisfaction over the disparagement of Northern Muslims at a lecture where the audience were mostly Christians and, perhaps, whites. Moses might have sold himself cheaply to his audience but the cost of negative repercussion for future generation of Nigerians is now inestimable. Slave trade started with Africans capturing their fellow Africans and exchanging them for pittance from Europeans. And in the intellectual front, we have the example of our African brother anthropologist, Anicet Kashamura, who in 1973 published a book in French, titled : FAMILLE, SEXUALITÉ ET CULTURE. The book contained a story about the sexual practices of peoples from Rift Valley Region of Central Africa. A section subtitled : MAGIES D'AMOUR, described the following sexual practice. "In order to stimulate a man or woman and induce them to intense sexual activity one inoculates them in the thighs, the pubic region and the back with blood from a male monkey (for a man) or a female monkey (for a woman)." Kashamura's book began with the preamble, "In the countries of the Great Lakes, and in particular, in Idjwi, one encounters a great variety of magic rites involving love." Fourteen years after this book was written, the origin of AIDS became public debate in 1987, whereby some European and American Scientists insisted that the disease originated in Africa from where it spread to the Caribbean and from there to the US and from there to Europe. Armed with Kashamura's book, J. Noireau got his letter published in the British Science Journal, Lancet, of June 27, 1987 with the title: HIV TRANSMISSION FROM MONKEY TO MAN. Since it was touted at that time that HIV jumped species from Monkey to man, Noireau asserted that the sexual practice described in Kashamura's book was the cause of AIDS originating in Africa. Professor Abraham Karpas of the Department of Haematological Medicine at Cambridge University Clinical School jumped on Noireau's assertion and wrote in the New Scientist of July 16, 1987 with the title: Origin of the AIDS Virus Explained. The explanation of course was the sexual ritual described by Kashumara in his 1973 book pertaining to the people around Lake Kivu on the Congo/Rwanda border. The only difference being that the alleged ritual sex practice was extrapolated to cover the entire Black Africa because of AIDS. It did not matter that Whites like Dr. Rosalind J. Harrison-Chirimuuta of Burton Hospital in Britain informed the world that thousands of Europeans in the 1920s underwent operation that was believed to slow down the ageing process, bring about rejuvenation and increase virility. The technique, she said, was pioneered by Dr. Serge Voronoff, a Russian working in Paris, and which involved the transplantation of testicles from living chimpanzees, monkeys and other simian species directly onto the testicle of the European recipient. She asserted that, those transplantations would have been far more efficient to transmit Simian Immune Virus to humans but her input was ignored. My point here is that just as Sexual rituals described by Kashamura in 1970 earned him French accolade and recognition of his most white French audience in 1973, Moses Ochonu's Lecture at the Pittsburg University before his Christan and perhaps mostly white audience may certainly earn him recognition or pecuniary reward now but which may turn negative not only to Nigerians but entire Africa in future.
 
 
Your questions as to whether the abduction of the Chibok girls was sex specific or not cannot be answered in yes or no. As you already know, the Islamic sect, 'Boko Haram(?),' was formed in 2002. The abduction of Chibok girls occurred on 14 April 2014, which gave a time space of 12 years. Before 14th April 2014, there was no known abduction of girls by 'Boko Haram(?).' A commonsense questions that should be asked are, did 'Boko Haram's(?)' men sexual appetites die between 2002 and 13th April 2014 but were suddenly awoken on April 14, 2014? If easy access to sex is what attracted Northern Youths to 'Boko Haram(?)', how could access to sex have been fulfilled through the abduction of only three-hundred Chibok girls? Apart from the Chibok girls, why were there no further kidnappings of girls since, as Moses is contending, access to sex is a major cause of youth's attraction to the sect? Do you know that despite the fact that the Chibok girls were said to have slept in a hall in anticipation to write their WASCE, no official at the State or Federal level has been able to confirm the exact number of girls that were kidnapped in Chibok till date? Some months ago, the federal government claimed that about 21 Chibok girls were released, but how the release took place was not disclosed. Why were only 21 girls released? There was no information on how many girls were still in captivity, why they were not released together with the 21 girls and when they are expected to be released. There are many illogic surrounding both the number of abducted Chibok girls and how the abduction was successfully executed in Bornu State where a State of Emergency and 24 hours curfew had been declared with patrolling soldiers and police to enforce law and order. Chibok to Sambisa forest is a distance of 60 kilometres. For 'Boko Haram (?)' to have transported three-hundred girls in a convoy from Chibok to Sambisa forest unhindered by the Nigerian armed forces is a mystery. Forty-two days after the Chibok girls were abducted, the Chief of Defence Staff, Air Marshal Alex Sabundo Badeh, told News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) on Monday, 26 May 2014 thus, "We want our girls back. I can tell you that our military can and will do it; but where they are held, can we go there with force? Nobody should say Nigerian military does not know what it is doing; we can't kill our girls in the name of trying to get them back." Badeh's statements implied that the where about of the girls were located and kept under surveillance by the Nigerian military. On July 22, 2014, the Director General of Nigeria's State Security Service (SSS), Ita Ekpeyong, told the press that the Nigerian government was aware of the location of the kidnapped Chibok school girls. He emphasized, "Government is making efforts. We know where they are, but we don't want to endanger their lives. That is the truth. We want to take it gradually and release them at the appropriate time. We know where they are. You can go to bed with that." Towards the end of July 2015, the newly installed President of Nigeria relieved both Badeh and Ekpeyong of their appointments and the Chibok's girls whose location they assured Nigerians they knew, remained in captivity. While retiring on 30 July 2015, the Chief of Defence Staff, Air Marshal Sabundo Badeh, informed his audience that the Armed Forces he led lacked the equipment to fight the terrorists. He failed to add, as subsequent EFCC enquiry and ongoing trial have shown, that he was under 13 months transferring N531 million every month into his private account from the Military budget. That was how President Jonathan and the service men under him gave life to 'Boko Haram(?)' and, in fact, the number of Nigerians killed by Jonathan's regime in a day could not be accomplished by 'Boko Haram(?)' in a year.
 
 
Questions which you think Psychologists should find answer to in Nigeria are : Why did the eastern Nigerians not react to whole sale corruption in their region the way Boko Haram did?; Why did Sata Guru religious commune not take up arms against their surrounding State?
 
Throughout Southern Nigeria, some people react to whole sale economic deprivation and impoverishment through armed robberies (Banks and private homes) and kidnappings of illegitimate millionaires and their close relations, for ransoms. 'Boko Haram(?)' also resorted to Bank robberies and kidnaps for ransom later after it had been attacked militarily by the power that be which felt threatened politically by the socio-political movement of the sect. Your observation about Eastern Nigerians to economic deprivation and impoverishment, presumed that all Northerners are 'Boko Haram (?).' That is not true. As for Sata Guru religious Commune, if their leaders had constituted threats to the surrounding ruling class, they would have been extra judicially murdered and their surviving members might have resorted to armed resistance just like 'Boko Haram(?)'.
 
 
Moses asserted that when Northern Muslim Youths were excluded from or deprived of sexual intercourse, and see their Western educated coreligionists and Christians engage in both licit and illicit sexual relationships with women, they become attracted to extremists who offer to quench their sexual hunger. What is just too easy for Northern Muslim youth to see their Western educated coreligionists and Christians engage in, than licit and illicit sex, is illegal acquisition of wealth and the worship of money, material wealth and not the worship of God or Allah. Whether Western educated or not, a Northern Muslim male youth knows that if he has money he can marry and care for, at least, a wife. If he is asked to choose between enslaving a woman sexually and money he will definitely choose to get his own legitimate share of the Federal allocation funds to his state with which he knows, he will be approved by his community to get married to a wife according to the tradition and culture. By the way, Western education should not be a criterion for a man to get married because before slavery, whether colonial or neo-colonial, Nigerians have been contracting marriages between the opposite sexes. What we proudly call Western Education in Nigeria is fluency in spoken and written English language which is not the mother tongue of Nigerians. Imposing English as the official language of Nigeria and making it a criterion on which one can get marry without simultaneously compelling the impostors of the language to provide opportunity for all Nigerians to acquire knowledge of the language is criminal. The imposition of Western education in Nigeria as a criterion for a man to gain access to a woman demands psychoanalytical examination of the impostors.
 
 
With Western education comes the perversion of our marriage system, traditionally and culturally. Thus, Moses in his drivel claimed that Western produced sexual facilitators were found during raids on 'Boko Haram's (?)' camps. Before the cultural pollution of Africa family-wise, boys and girls were brought up to abstain from sexual intercourse before marriage. Marriage itself was not just an affair between the bride and the bridegroom alone but parents and extended families on both sides. Even where the boy or the girl chose their would be partner in marriage self, parents were informed and mediators from both sides were appointed to investigate the suitability of the would-be couples together and to negotiate payment of traditional dowry to the family of the bride. Sex was seen only as means of procreation and not just a means to satisfy the man's lust. Boys, in particular, were trained to discipline their sexual instinct. The practice of polygamy ensured that every female was mated, especially where there were shortage of men. Even Lord Lugard who wrote the book, ' The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa,' to scorn Africans, could still appreciate the following, "The custom, which seems fairly general among the negro tribes, of suckling a child for two or three years, during which a woman lives apart from her husband, tends to decrease population." Lugard says the woman lives apart from her husband because they do not have sexual intercourse for the period of suckling when the child is still being tied to the back of the woman. There were no condoms but African men exercised self-control over their sexual behaviours. As history had it when the Western educated Nigerians returned from overseas to take appointments in Nigeria after independence, their loggages contained some kilograms of condoms which they intended using on their Nigerian wives. Contrary to the belief that Nigerian women are dominated and oppressed by their men, Nigerian wives of the condom wearing Western educated told their husbands that they should learn not only to know when to shower but not to shower with the rain-coats on. Some wives were even more blunt to their condom wearing husbands with questions, "Do you think I am a prostitute or a masturbating machine?" It was under the pretence of curbing the
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USA Africa Dialogue Series - Superb Download on Scholarship in the History of African Astronomy



                                  Superb Download on Scholarship in the History of African Astronomy

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Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Ewi Igbokegbodo Keta

Below is quoted another powerfully intriguing summation  from Olayinka Agbetuyi from the thread "FW: TWO NEW BOOKS IN HONOR OF KWAME NKRUMAH"  on this group. It would be wonderful to learn the inspiration and progression of this thinking.

 I also wonder if it can be help catalyse a conjunction between Okigbo's Labyrinths and Ifa through  the prominence of the female principle in both discursive contexts- the river goddess Idoto for Okigbo and Odu, the wife of Orunmila for Ifa, although the prominence of Odu in traditional Ifa does not seem to equal that of Idoto in Labyrinths.

As practitioners seek, however,  to make Ifa spirituality  more gender inclusive, by emphasizing its female centred dimensions, Odu's prominence is being developed in Diaspora Ifa by such thinkers as Awo Falokun Fatumnbi, Ayele Kumari, Melba Farell and other feminist contributors on the  Facebook group Ifa-Orisa-Egun-Talks where fierce discussions on this subject are evident, such as this .

'The mathe-magical God/dess greets you!

The Primal Digitizer whose will you project greets you.

Author of the Primal Cogito,
S/he who is affirmed in the very act of denial enkindles you.

The Primal Dialectician greets you,
the protector of Marxists embraces you.

S/he who bade the Golden Mercury of Africa sing:
Nkrumaism will never die
salutes your industry.

She who appeared in Moremi and affirmed: 'the palm that rocks the (civilizational) cradle
greets you.

She on whose supine backbone lay Esinmirin on its snaky winding way across Africa through subterranean streams welcomes you.

Primal Teacher
At whose pendulous breasts
humankind suckles at the fount of knowledge welcomes you into the fold.

Congratulations! '

Olayinka Agbetuyi






On 23 May 2017 at 09:39, Oluwatoyin Vincent Adepoju <toyin.adepoju@gmail.com> wrote:
Powerful summation on Okigbo in terms of the motif of the cross, particularly in relation to the Yoruba Orisa tradition deity Esu Elegbara in the context of the musical intersections of the beat and the chord, the numerical and the verbal. I wonder where one can learn more about these relationships between Esu and music, this being a new idea to me.

Was Okigbo "committed to oracular divination"? I would like references to the sections of his sole poetry collections Labyrinths that demonstrates that.

How readily could one develop correlations between Labyrinths and Ifa? Would it be the description of Okigbo's incorporation of chant/s of  the Timi of Ede and Yoruba idioms?

I would very much like to learn about the specific lines in Okigbo's poetry with their Yoruba correlates. Romanus  Egudu and others has done  beautiful work on Okigbo's adaptation of Igbo proverb/s, folklore and spirituality.

thanks

toyin

On 22 May 2017 at 22:25, Olayinka Agbetuyi <yagbetuyi@hotmail.com> wrote:
Thanks Prof.  The series is part of the annotated translation of Christopher Okigbo' Labyrinths from a Yoruba ideological perspective in particular the significance of the cross to Yoruba thought.

It elaborates poetically on themes which Henry ( Atandare Onibode) Gates Jr has worked on to demonstrate how deities like Esu-Elagbara accompanied captives on the Middle Passage to help structure strategies of emancipation through rhetorics and songs of freedom.

These songs of freedom persists to this day in the lyrics of musical giants like Bob Marley, the development of Blues and Jazz and of course back home in genres such as Juju music.  

The effort is to extrapolate the age long mytho-poetic structuration of music as a method of polemics of deliverance in particular the efficacy of music (psychologically opening the interstices of the soul where bland rhetorics prove insufficient.)

This effort explains why Okigbo was so committed to music in his lifetime that his poetry shows the unmistakable signs that he viewed poetry as modern surrogate to music.  His commitment to oracular divination means that he sees (rightly) the oracle as the link between poetry and music since music comprises the beat (the numerical element) and the chord (the verbal element).  The Yoruba deity in charge of both is Esu- Elegbara.

 This would not have been lost on Okigbo (who came to prominence in Yoruba land) who in his eclectic style included chants of monarchs like the Timi of Ede in his poetry as well as Yoruba idioms like 'owo omode ko to pepe' .

Okigbo apparently thinks ( through the lament of the poet-protagonist)Africans lost their culture to the influences of Christianity (symbolized by the cross). The translation shows how the African pre- Christian notion of the cross (through Elegbara) symbolizes redemption.



Sent from my Samsung Galaxy smartphone.


-------- Original message --------
From: Michael Afolayan <mafolayan@yahoo.com>
Date: 22/05/2017 01:37 (GMT+00:00)
Cc: Olayinka Agbetuyi <yagbetuyi@hotmail.com>
Subject: Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Ewi Igbokegbodo Keta

This is beautiful, Alagba, but we are awaiting the interpretation o. E ku ohun . . .
Michael







On Sunday, May 21, 2017 7:00 PM, Olayinka Agbetuyi <yagbetuyi@hotmail.com> wrote:


Odùṣọ Ifá



Àwọn ìràwọ ti wá rékọjá,
Àwọ sánmà pẹlú awò ojúkan rẹ
Nwòye ayé abẹ rẹ.

Awon ìràwọ ti rekoja,
Ṣùgbọn o, èmi –nibo ni emi wà?
Múra ki o túnramú, ìwòye mi,
Lati dìrọmó wakati yi,
Ki o si mú ileri ìgbà yi ṣẹ
Pelu orin àti ẹyẹ.

Odùṣọ ifá yọ si mi
Gegebi yemọja òkun
Abara rọgbọdọ
O wipe:

Túraká! Ifá kò robi sẹni kan
Kókó ifa ni lati ta ibi nù
Ati lati kó ire wọlé.
Kọlọfin ibi ilà gbé pàdé
Ni oríta Ẹlẹgbára.
Kọlọfin ibi ilà gbé pàdé
Ni àgbélèbú ti paradà di oríta ọnà
Kọlọfin ibi ti Ila gbe pade
Ni bèbè Náìlì tí ọmọ gbẹnọ gbẹnọ
Gbé sọ ẹnọ àmójúbà Ẹlẹgbára;
Kọlọfin ibi ilà gbé pàdé ni Ojú Ẹlẹgba*
Ni olùdándè ojú inu ti o sọnù,
Ti a ṣe ìràpadà rẹ si ìparadà orin kíkọ;
Ilà èkíní ni ti ohùn òkè
Ati ti ìsàlẹ orin alárinrin ni ipasẹ
Gbédègbeyọ Ẹlẹgbára;
Ilà èkejì ni ti òṣùnwọn
Ìgbà mélǒ ni ìlù lílù pẹlú
Irinṣẹ orin Lákáayé pẹlu atọkùn Ọrúnmìlà;
Ni ibi ti ewì gbé paradà
Di ìmọ orin ayérayé…


Odùṣọ Ifa t'ẹnu b'orin:
Ẹ má s'Èṣù d'èké
Ẹ ma sọ'fá d'ọlẹ
Kos'ésìn kẹsìn ti o bori ifa.
Odùṣọ, oníbodè ibode Òrun
Ệlà, onílànà ọrọ ìrètí ògo.










*Fún ìwòye itumọ Ojú Ẹlẹgba, mo dúpẹ lọwọ ògbóntagí iyèkọn akẹkọ mi, onímọ iṣẹ onà gbólóhùn, Ọjọgbọn Adémọlá Dàsylvà.

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Monday, May 22, 2017

USA Africa Dialogue Series - Today's Quote

Intellectual approach to separatist agitation is what is expected from any serious non violent separatist group leader.

CAO. 


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Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Ewi Igbokegbodo Keta

Powerful summation on Okigbo in terms of the motif of the cross, particularly in relation to the Yoruba Orisa tradition deity Esu Elegbara in the context of the musical intersections of the beat and the chord, the numerical and the verbal. I wonder where one can learn more about these relationships between Esu and music, this being a new idea to me.

Was Okigbo "committed to oracular divination"? I would like references to the sections of his sole poetry collections Labyrinths that demonstrates that.

How readily could one develop correlations between Labyrinths and Ifa? Would it be the description of Okigbo's incorporation of chant/s of  the Timi of Ede and Yoruba idioms?

I would very much like to learn about the specific lines in Okigbo's poetry with their Yoruba correlates. Romanus  Egudu and others has done  beautiful work on Okigbo's adaptation of Igbo proverb/s, folklore and spirituality.

thanks

toyin

On 22 May 2017 at 22:25, Olayinka Agbetuyi <yagbetuyi@hotmail.com> wrote:
Thanks Prof.  The series is part of the annotated translation of Christopher Okigbo' Labyrinths from a Yoruba ideological perspective in particular the significance of the cross to Yoruba thought.

It elaborates poetically on themes which Henry ( Atandare Onibode) Gates Jr has worked on to demonstrate how deities like Esu-Elagbara accompanied captives on the Middle Passage to help structure strategies of emancipation through rhetorics and songs of freedom.

These songs of freedom persists to this day in the lyrics of musical giants like Bob Marley, the development of Blues and Jazz and of course back home in genres such as Juju music.  

The effort is to extrapolate the age long mytho-poetic structuration of music as a method of polemics of deliverance in particular the efficacy of music (psychologically opening the interstices of the soul where bland rhetorics prove insufficient.)

This effort explains why Okigbo was so committed to music in his lifetime that his poetry shows the unmistakable signs that he viewed poetry as modern surrogate to music.  His commitment to oracular divination means that he sees (rightly) the oracle as the link between poetry and music since music comprises the beat (the numerical element) and the chord (the verbal element).  The Yoruba deity in charge of both is Esu- Elegbara.

 This would not have been lost on Okigbo (who came to prominence in Yoruba land) who in his eclectic style included chants of monarchs like the Timi of Ede in his poetry as well as Yoruba idioms like 'owo omode ko to pepe' .

Okigbo apparently thinks ( through the lament of the poet-protagonist)Africans lost their culture to the influences of Christianity (symbolized by the cross). The translation shows how the African pre- Christian notion of the cross (through Elegbara) symbolizes redemption.



Sent from my Samsung Galaxy smartphone.


-------- Original message --------
From: Michael Afolayan <mafolayan@yahoo.com>
Date: 22/05/2017 01:37 (GMT+00:00)
Cc: Olayinka Agbetuyi <yagbetuyi@hotmail.com>
Subject: Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - Ewi Igbokegbodo Keta

This is beautiful, Alagba, but we are awaiting the interpretation o. E ku ohun . . .
Michael







On Sunday, May 21, 2017 7:00 PM, Olayinka Agbetuyi <yagbetuyi@hotmail.com> wrote:


Odùṣọ Ifá



Àwọn ìràwọ ti wá rékọjá,
Àwọ sánmà pẹlú awò ojúkan rẹ
Nwòye ayé abẹ rẹ.

Awon ìràwọ ti rekoja,
Ṣùgbọn o, èmi –nibo ni emi wà?
Múra ki o túnramú, ìwòye mi,
Lati dìrọmó wakati yi,
Ki o si mú ileri ìgbà yi ṣẹ
Pelu orin àti ẹyẹ.

Odùṣọ ifá yọ si mi
Gegebi yemọja òkun
Abara rọgbọdọ
O wipe:

Túraká! Ifá kò robi sẹni kan
Kókó ifa ni lati ta ibi nù
Ati lati kó ire wọlé.
Kọlọfin ibi ilà gbé pàdé
Ni oríta Ẹlẹgbára.
Kọlọfin ibi ilà gbé pàdé
Ni àgbélèbú ti paradà di oríta ọnà
Kọlọfin ibi ti Ila gbe pade
Ni bèbè Náìlì tí ọmọ gbẹnọ gbẹnọ
Gbé sọ ẹnọ àmójúbà Ẹlẹgbára;
Kọlọfin ibi ilà gbé pàdé ni Ojú Ẹlẹgba*
Ni olùdándè ojú inu ti o sọnù,
Ti a ṣe ìràpadà rẹ si ìparadà orin kíkọ;
Ilà èkíní ni ti ohùn òkè
Ati ti ìsàlẹ orin alárinrin ni ipasẹ
Gbédègbeyọ Ẹlẹgbára;
Ilà èkejì ni ti òṣùnwọn
Ìgbà mélǒ ni ìlù lílù pẹlú
Irinṣẹ orin Lákáayé pẹlu atọkùn Ọrúnmìlà;
Ni ibi ti ewì gbé paradà
Di ìmọ orin ayérayé…


Odùṣọ Ifa t'ẹnu b'orin:
Ẹ má s'Èṣù d'èké
Ẹ ma sọ'fá d'ọlẹ
Kos'ésìn kẹsìn ti o bori ifa.
Odùṣọ, oníbodè ibode Òrun
Ệlà, onílànà ọrọ ìrètí ògo.










*Fún ìwòye itumọ Ojú Ẹlẹgba, mo dúpẹ lọwọ ògbóntagí iyèkọn akẹkọ mi, onímọ iṣẹ onà gbólóhùn, Ọjọgbọn Adémọlá Dàsylvà.

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USA Africa Dialogue Series - Fwd: ||NaijaObserver|| The Achievement of Chinua Achebe


---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Ejiofor ejiofor_mb@yahoo.co.uk [NaijaObserver] <NaijaObserver@yahoogroups.com>
Date: 23 May 2017 at 02:34
Subject: ||NaijaObserver|| The Achievement of Chinua Achebe
To: "askanambrastategovernor@yahoogroups.com" <askanambrastategovernor@yahoogroups.com>


 

 



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Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - My take on auctions and contemporary African Art in today's New York Times

Dear prof Chika Okeke Agulu,
Thank you for this inspiring paper. To add a voice to what has already been said, I am quoting a paper I recently publish in a French newspaper, Le Point Afrique. It is in french and I know some of you read that language but we (Anglophones and francophones) need to share our view if we want things to change.

Faut-il restituer au Bénin ses biens culturels ?

TRIBUNE. La demande du président Patrick Talon à propos des biens culturels du Bénin actuellement au musée du quai Branly continue de faire des vagues.
Par Emery Patrick Effiboley*
Publié le | Le Point Afrique
Des statues du Bénin sont exposées ici au musée du quai Branly-Jacques Chirac en octobre 2007. © AFP PHOTO / OLIVIER LABAN-MATTEI
Quelques mois après son accession à la magistrature suprême au Bénin le 6 avril 2016, M. Patrice Talon, président de la République, a formulé une demande de restitution des biens culturels pillés par l'armée française sous la houlette du colonel Dodds, devenu général à l'issue de la conquête du royaume du Danhomè. La plupart de ces pièces sont actuellement préservées dans les collections du musée du quai Branly à Paris.
Le 22 août 2016, alors que la nouvelle se propageait dans les divers médias, je reçus le message électronique de Jos van Beurden, chercheur néerlandais, qui est en passe de finir une thèse sur la question des restitutions de biens culturels dans le monde. Sachant que j'avais abordé cette question dans mon mémoire de master il y a un peu plus d'une dizaine d'années, il voulait que je l'aide à obtenir une copie de la demande officielle de restitution du Bénin adressée à la France. Malgré toute ma bonne volonté, je n'ai pas pu lui fournir ce document officiel.

La demande du Bénin, pas une première

Dans ma recherche, Joseph Adandé, un aîné universitaire, a eu l'obligeance de me faire parvenir un article paru sur le site internet www.acotonou.com avec une photo du ministre d'État, Irénée Koukpaki, qui évoquait la question. À la vue dudit article, je me suis dit qu'il s'agissait donc d'une procédure officielle. Une certaine presse a même indiqué que c'était la première fois qu'un pays africain au sud du Sahara faisait une telle demande ; ce qui n'est pas vrai puisque cela fait plusieurs décennies que le Nigeria, voisin du Bénin, réclame le retour des bronzes pillés par l'armée britannique en février 1897.
Plus récemment encore, lors de la publication de la Déclaration sur l'importance et la valeur des Musées universels (décembre 2002) signée par dix-neuf grands musées occidentaux, la Commission des musées et monuments du Nigeria, sous la plume d'Oluyemi Omotoso et de Martin Oguntayo Akanbiemu, a rédigé une réponse conséquente. Georges Abungu, alors directeur des musées nationaux du Kenya, avait lui aussi donné son point de vue sur la question dans une tribune parue en 2004 dans les Nouvelles de l'Icom (Conseil international des musées). Seul le Bénin n'avait pas donné de la voix sur le sujet. Mais vu l'état des musées au Bénin aujourd'hui, faut-il répondre favorablement à une telle demande somme toute légitime ? Un peu d'histoire pourrait nous aider dans notre cheminement.
Tout commence en 1892 à la chute du royaume d'Abomey
Les biens culturels que réclame le Bénin aujourd'hui sont pour une partie de ce qu'on peut appeler butin de guerre emporté par le général Dodds et ses compagnons à la suite de la chute du royaume d'Abomey en novembre 1892. Parmi ces pièces, les plus symboliques étaient des trônes géants, la statue du dieu Gou, des statues représentant les rois Glèlè et Gbèhanzin, et bien d'autres.
Alors que le Danhomè subissait le vandalisme de l'armée française, le refus du souverain de la Cité du Bénin (Bini) au Nigeria de se soumettre va lui coûter cher. Son royaume connaîtra le même sort et plusieurs milliers de pièces en bronze vont être pillées lors de l'expédition punitive du 24 février 1897. Elles seront plus tard vendues aux enchères en 1898 et se retrouvent aujourd'hui dans les plus grands musées occidentaux. Tous ces événements s'inscrivaient dans le mouvement de la conquête de l'Afrique et du monde par les anciennes puissances coloniales qu'étaient la France, la Grande-Bretagne, l'Allemagne, les Pays-Bas et, dans une moindre mesure, l'Espagne et le Portugal.
Mais au lendemain du second conflit mondial, les mouvements d'émancipation vont naître dans la plupart des colonies. Ceux-ci conduiront aux indépendances de l'Indonésie (1945), de l'Inde (1947), de la Gold Coast devenu Ghana (1957) et de la plupart des autres pays africains à partir de 1960, sachant que celles des colonies espagnoles et portugaises interviendront plus tard.

Le tournant des indépendances

À partir de ce moment, les nouveaux États voulant écrire leur roman national vont envisager de recourir à ces biens culturels pillés durant la période coloniale. Si les francophones n'y ont pas pensé ou s'y prennent tardivement, la demande d'autres anciennes colonies ne date pas d'aujourd'hui. En dehors du Nigeria voisin, les Indonésiens notamment avaient très tôt fait cette requête. Celle-ci avait abouti puisque les Pays-Bas ont été le premier État européen à restituer des biens culturels. Il agissait des sculptures des temples du Lombok dans la région de Singarasi en 1976, quelques petites années après l'adoption de la « Convention de l'Unesco concernant les mesures à prendre pour interdire et empêcher l'importation, l'exportation et le transfert de propriété illicites de biens culturels » de 1970. Mais il faut indiquer que ces sculptures faisaient partie d'un culte encore vivace et que l'État indonésien en avait assuré et garanti leur sécurité. Le Nigeria quant à lui a toujours fait une demande de restitution en direction de la Grande-Bretagne, comme la Grèce, notamment lors des préparatifs des Jeux olympiques d'Athènes de 2004. Les Grecs voulaient que, comme les Jeux revenaient au bercail, il était aussi de bon ton que les marbres du Parthénon emportés illégitimement de Grèce par Lord Elgin au temps de l'Empire ottoman retournent chez eux. Mais l'État britannique a donné une fin de non-recevoir à cette énième réclamation grecque.

Un patrimoine mondial mobile et plus encore

Il faut rappeler une fois encore que la demande de restitution par le Bénin est tout à fait légitime. Mais pour que celle-ci soit utile pour les Béninois et le monde pour lequel ce genre de biens culturels pourrait aujourd'hui appartenir à une liste du patrimoine mondial mobile à créer, il requiert des conditions sans lesquelles leur retour risque de conduire à un nouveau déplacement, qui aboutirait cette fois-ci dans les collections privées, donc au seul profit de leurs propriétaires.
À moins que cela ne soit du « lip service » comme on dit en anglais, des paroles sans actes, la première condition qui donnerait la preuve de la bonne volonté du gouvernement béninois serait d'abord de signer la Convention de l'Unesco concernant les mesures à prendre pour interdire et empêcher l'importation, l'exportation et le transfert de propriété illicites de biens culturels de 1970, cadre juridique dans lequel une telle restitution devrait se faire. Car sans cette démarche, nous resterons dans les effets d'annonce qui n'aboutissent à rien de concret.

La nécessité d'une vraie politique muséale

L'étape suivante qui nécessite quand même un peu de temps est de mettre en place une politique muséale du genre du Deltaplan, mis en œuvre par les Pays-Bas à la fin des années 1990, ou plus tard l'audacieuse politique muséale élaborée par le Brésil dans les années 2000, et qui sont en train d'être démolies à la faveur du libéralisme ennemi des politiques publiques volontaristes. Cette politique muséale béninoise devrait comporter au moins trois volets : les infrastructures, les ressources humaines et les finances.
Par ordre d'importance, le volet infrastructurel vient en premier.
Aujourd'hui, il n'existe pas au Bénin de lieu public disposant de la sécurité nécessaire pour accueillir des biens d'une telle valeur. Les palais royaux d'Abomey, la première attraction touristique du Bénin et destination logique de ces biens, n'ont pas la sécurité requise pour les abriter. Romuald Hazoumè, dans une tribune parue sur le site www.telerama.fr le 17 septembre dernier, a rappelé la situation de ces palais. Il faut donc aménager un tel espace ; et pour arriver à en construire un, cela requiert au moins quelques années.
Ensuite, pour faire fonctionner l'espace, il faudra du personnel qualifié, qui pourrait définir un projet muséographique à la hauteur du symbolisme attaché à ces biens culturels. Ce sera peut-être aussi l'occasion de concevoir un projet qui puisse raconter notre histoire nationale tout en mettant en valeur la diversité de la société béninoise. Une belle occasion de revisiter notre histoire dans laquelle subsistent encore des non-dits, des sujets tabous. Mais avec des non-dits, on ne peut construire une nation cohésive.
Enfin, il faut que l'État béninois se décide résolument à mettre en place une ligne budgétaire ad hoc au profit des musées. Jusqu'à ce jour, les établissements publics béninois se sont toujours autofinancés à travers les recettes réalisées sur les billets d'entrée. Ce qui fait par exemple que le site des palais royaux d'Abomey ou le musée d'histoire de Ouidah, dont le nombre de fréquentations oscille autour des 30 000 visiteurs par an, peuvent compter sur un pactole relativement consistant.
En revanche, les musées du nord du pays qui n'ont qu'un modeste taux souffrent, même pour les besoins de fonctionnement les plus basiques. C'est donc l'occasion rêvée pour mettre en place un dispositif, qui sera inscrit dans la loi nationale de finances et dont la gestion serait confiée aux responsables des différents établissements et qui répondront intuitu personae de son utilisation.
Cela conduit à dire que sans la mise en œuvre de ces différentes étapes, il est inutile, à tout le moins, d'envisager une restitution des biens culturels pillés lors de la conquête du royaume du Danhomè à la République du Bénin bien qu'elle en soit le propriétaire légitime.

* PhD, Andrew W. Mellon Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Université de Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Afrique du Sud.
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    Dr Emery Patrick EFFIBOLEY
    Assistant Professor, 
    Department of History and Archaeology, University of Abomey-Calavi 
    Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg,(2014-2016) 
    www.researchgate.net/Profile/Emery_Effiboley
     



    De : Toyin Falola <toyinfalola@austin.utexas.edu>
    À : dialogue <USAAfricaDialogue@googlegroups.com>
    Envoyé le : Lundi 22 mai 2017 21h08
    Objet : FW: USA Africa Dialogue Series - My take on auctions and contemporary African Art in today's New York Times


    Toyin Falola
    Department of History
    The University of Texas at Austin
    104 Inner Campus Drive
    Austin, TX 78712-0220
    USA
    512 475 7224
    512 475 7222 (fax)

    From: Sylvester Ogbechie Ogbechie <ogbechie@arthistory.ucsb.edu>
    Date: Monday, May 22, 2017 at 11:18 AM
    To: Bisi Silva <labisi@gmail.com>
    Cc: Toyin Falola <toyinfalola@austin.utexas.edu>, chika Okeke-Agulu <cokekeag@princeton.edu>, ishola williams <isholawilliams@yahoo.com>, "murfsculpt@sbcglobal.net" <murfsculpt@sbcglobal.net>, Janine Sytsma <jsytsma@wisc.edu>, Chuka Nnabuife <chukacater@yahoo.com>, "ade_azeez2002@yahoo.com" <ade_azeez2002@yahoo.com>, "alafara3@yahoo.com" <alafara3@yahoo.com>, abayomi ola Ola <AOla@spelman.edu>, "egonwa1@yahoo.com" <egonwa1@yahoo.com>, "jerrybuhari@yahoo.com" <jerrybuhari@yahoo.com>, "krydz@panafricanartists.org" <krydz@panafricanartists.org>, "OFAMULE@uwsuper.edu" <OFAMULE@uwsuper.edu>, "ola.oloidi@yahoo.com" <ola.oloidi@yahoo.com>, "onoyom_ukpong@yahoo.com" <onoyom_ukpong@yahoo.com>, Peju Layiwola <pejulayiwola@yahoo.com>, "penncils@yahoo.com" <penncils@yahoo.com>, "ronnxie@yahoo.com" <ronnxie@yahoo.com>, Segun Ajiboye <segunajib@yahoo.com>, "sojewuyi@siu.edu" <sojewuyi@siu.edu>, "TFilani@scsu.edu" <TFilani@scsu.edu>, Tejumola Olaniyan <tolaniyan@wisc.edu>, "ugiomohfrani@yahoo.co.uk" <ugiomohfrani@yahoo.co.uk>, "unzewi@emory.edu" <unzewi@emory.edu>, "eniningbj@gmail.com" <eniningbj@gmail.com>, jegede <jegeded@muohio.edu>, "jane.bryce@cavehill.uwi.edu" <jane.bryce@cavehill.uwi.edu>, Freida High <high@wisc.edu>, Bolaji Campbell <bcampbel@risd.edu>, "cokekeag@princton.edu" <cokekeag@princton.edu>, "krydz@heavensgate-ng.com" <krydz@heavensgate-ng.com>, "ogbadeg@emory.edu" <ogbadeg@emory.edu>, "Adejumo, Christopher O" <c.ade@austin.utexas.edu>, Michael Harris <olonamdh@gmail.com>, Rowland Abiodun <roabiodun@amherst.edu>, "blawal@mail1.vcu.edu" <blawal@mail1.vcu.edu>, "dtdoris@umich.edu" <dtdoris@umich.edu>, "akinwaleonipede@yahoo.coom" <akinwaleonipede@yahoo.coom>, "radedamola@yahoo.com" <radedamola@yahoo.com>, "segunajib@yaho.com" <segunajib@yaho.com>, alao <akinalao@yahoo.com>, "babaleya@yahoo.com" <babaleya@yahoo.com>, "ebankoleojo@yahoo.com" <ebankoleojo@yahoo.com>, "vekpuk@yahoo.com" <vekpuk@yahoo.com>, "rrecacdngo@yahoo.com" <rrecacdngo@yahoo.com>, "oliverenwonwu@yahoo.com" <oliverenwonwu@yahoo.com>, Stephen Ad⁄yem‚ FolΩr√nm‚ <folasteve@yahoo.com>, "sh40@cornell.edu" <sh40@cornell.edu>, "ibraheem_muheeb@yahoo.com" <ibraheem_muheeb@yahoo.com>, "jahblak@yahoo.com" <jahblak@yahoo.com>, Kunle Filani <kunlefilani@yahoo.com>, "bmmurray@gmail.com" <bmmurray@gmail.com>, "joemusa@joemusa.com" <joemusa@joemusa.com>, "ikaynwachukwu@yahoo.com" <ikaynwachukwu@yahoo.com>, "bestochigbo@yahoo.com" <bestochigbo@yahoo.com>, "okndibe@yahoo.com" <okndibe@yahoo.com>, "mikeck27@hotmail.com" <mikeck27@hotmail.com>, "mufuonifade@yahoo.com" <mufuonifade@yahoo.com>, "periajib@yahoo.com" <periajib@yahoo.com>, "ronke.adesanya@mail.ui.edu.ng" <ronke.adesanya@mail.ui.edu.ng>, "oladimejitiri@yahoo.com" <oladimejitiri@yahoo.com>, Tola Wewe <tolawewe@yahoo.com>, "akinbogun2003@yahoo.com" <akinbogun2003@yahoo.com>, "toniokpe@yahoo.com" <toniokpe@yahoo.com>, "tunde_babawale-yahoo.com" <tunde_babawale@yahoo.com>, "konatey@gmail.com" <konatey@gmail.com>
    Subject: Re: FW: USA Africa Dialogue Series - My take on auctions and contemporary African Art in today's New York Times

    First off, congrats to Chika Okeke-Agulu for his piece. It is good to see people discussing this important issue. Thanks also to Bisi for pointing out that I have devoted more than a decade of work to highlighting this issue, which I frame as the question of how to enhance the value of African art and cultural production, and how to secure to Africans the intellectual property and cultural patrimony rights of their ancestral and contemporary heritage. I agree with Bisi that diaspora based African scholars should do more to turn things around but note that calls to that effect have mainly fallen on deaf ears. We are all somehow engaged in transactional relationships here and not enough collaborative ventures, which is really what we need. This involves also collaborations between diaspora and African operatives, to move things forward collectively.

    As Bisi noted, I made calls for greater focus on these issues ten years ago, and even before that I predicted the commercialization of contemporary African art in my review of Okwui Enwezor's Documenta XI. I consider it unfortunate that the same calls one made so long ago are now being repeated, which is the result of a lack of organized effort in that direction. Prof jegede is right that the narrative of modern and contemporary African art has been shaped substantially by African scholars. It is important to ask whether this will persist if these scholars do not work to develop a new generation to take up the mantle. One of the primary problems of research in our field is the constant return to a situation where African art continues to be "discovered" every ten years or so, a narrative that wipes out previous work in the field in favor of celebrating the new "discoverers". It will be truly unfortunate if in anotehr decade we gather here to again celebrate the perpetual rediscovery of the continents art and cultural production.

    Perhaps it is time for a conclave. I am calling for a meeting of minds to map out how to best proceed so that some of the objectives defined here as desirable can be met. Talk is cheap; action is much more difficult but useful.

    Cheers.


    ____________________
    Professor Sylvester Okwunodu Ogbechie, PhD
    Founder and Editor, Critical Interventions
    Smithsonian Institution Senior Fellow 2016-2017
    950 Independence Avenue, SW
    MRC 708
    Washington DC 20560

    On Mon, May 22, 2017 at 11:34 AM, Bisi Silva <labisi@gmail.com> wrote:
    Thank Prof, 

    Good day to all the many Profs here, I hope this email meets you well. All protocols observed o! 

    Thanks for the article Chika especially some of the salient points that you highlighted. 

    I am just reposting my comment on Facebook to add to the discussion. 

    Yes African collectors and those based here must participate in this market. So what are the realistic, realisable strategies? We all know what the problem is but what are the strategies and solutions to be put in place. I think there needs to be a concerted effort by all here and in the diaspora. Very few galleries in the west are doing anything here or collaborating or expanding or including a component/branch on the continent outside of artfairs. Take October Gallery or Magnin A for example two of the longest existing off the top of my head. Though Magnin operated for a much longer time as an independent curator/agent. Jack Bell tried but as i read and understood it then it seemed exploitative to me - rightly or wrong - and am not sure what happened to it or if it continues. 1:54 has understood that engaging with potential African collectors has to be done here hence their first edition which will happen in Marrakech in Feb 2018. And what are those in the diaspora willing to do? Many have cushy jobs and tenured positions in top Universities and institutions which guarantees stability how can they be used to engineer solutions here. I remember asking during my talk at Northwestern University, how can the contents of one of the largest libraries of Africana be made accessible in Africa? How can knowledge be shared and transferred? Can their networks, access to top collectors, curators, institutions translate into something tangible on the continent? The market/sector is young, full of potential but also extremely vulnerable. But I believe this is the exact moment that the African Diaspora can and should make the strongest effort to turn things around. Sometimes it is not about money but about networks and exchanges and a little bit of one's time.

    And i add this now.

    I remember a colleague called me yesterday to talk about the article and he said that this is what Sylvester Ogbechie has been talking about for so many years. I do remember the summers that Prof Ogbechie used to come to Lagos and offered his time in giving a series of lectures about cultural management, valuing, recognising our cultural asset etc. This was important but also I think very early on in the way people were thinking so the real implications would have been lost on many. But if that same lecture was given today nearly a decade later I think it would result in unprecedented activity. Hence the import of the sentence above "I believe this is the exact moment that the African Diaspora can and should make the strongest effort to turn thing around." There are so many people 'on ground' who you can partner/collaborate with. Lets forget hierarchies because each person is coming with a unique and valuable experiences and insights. 

    A great example is the Asiko curatorial and artistic pan African roaming project by CCA, Lagos.   Last year we had Prof Moyo Okediji spend 3 weeks out of the 5 weeks in Addis Ababa with us giving lectures, taking part in the crits, and the curatorial seminars. He participated as a guest in2014 in Dakar too. All at his own cost. I couldn't even slip a birr into his pocket.  Same with Eddie Chambers and other people who might pay the ticket and we the  accommodation. Prof Tamar Garb has been a faculty since 2013. I remember Prof Okediji saying and I paraphrase, Wow! these are the young people that I should be teaching. What am I doing teaching African art to oyinbos? Or something like that!!! 

    In Asiko Addis Ababa 2016 our main weekly reading material for the 5 weeks was a favourite of mine Postcolonial Modernism by dear Chika :) . I divided the participants into groups of 3 or 4 and they each had 2 chapters which they would come to the class and discuss.  Jeez!!!! That was serious hard work.  I had never been so frustrated at the inarticulate renderings that came back. It could have been written in Greek for all I know.  Not to say that these are not brilliant young people but it is an indication of the awful, awful education system. And whilst I know they may not have understood it during the course - and I let them know their performance is not good enough of course - I believe that they will reread and reread and reread till they get it and that is the purpose of what we do. Feed them as best as we can and let them digest at their own pace. 

    Sorry for the long email. Thanks for your article Prof Chika.   And thanks for this platform Prof Falola.  

    Thank you! 

    Regards
    Bisi

    On 22 May 2017 at 15:38, Toyin Falola <toyinfalola@austin.utexas.edu > wrote:

    Subject: Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - My take on auctions and contemporary African Art in today's New York Times

    Dear All:
     
    In every field of study and endeavor, there are giants (or elephants) and, of course, rodents! In the Art World, we make way for the jegedes (Prof), Okeke-Agulus, Anatsuis and others ( as Elephants) to make their voices heard. So, hearing from Professor Emeritus Professor jegede, in response, to the brilliant piece by Princeton Professor Chika Okeke-Agulu does say it all.
     
    Indeed, when my spouse and I read the piece in NYT, "Modern African Art Is Being Gentrified", we immediately saluted Professor Okeke-Agulu (Chika) for making it big in NYT with the brilliant art piece. Of course, from the original piece in the Sunday Review section of NYT, there are two pictorial illustrations: of "Drifting Continents" (2009) by El Anatsui, the Ghanaian artist; and then "How to Blow Up Two Heads at Once (Ladies; 2006) by Yinka Shonibare, the British-Nigerian artist. My spouse, out of curiosity, asked me: "Why have two female heads blown at once by women, but not heads of two men blown out by men?"  As my legendary and quotable mentor (Baba Ijebu) would explain: "Maybe, it is part of the gentrification. Is that not be so, abi?"!
     
    Many thanks to Professor Okeke-Aguku, for putting Sotheby's auction of works by artists from our beleaguered continent on the map of today's "Trump World" and, also, many thanks to Professor Emeritus jegede for creating a "forest dance" around the published NYT piece.
     
    And, as VC Aluko would have ended a response: "There you have it"!
     
    A.B. Assensoh.

    From:usaafricadialogue@googlegroups .com <usaafricadialogue@googlegroup s.com> on behalf of jegede, dele <dele.jegede@miamioh.edu>
    Sent: Sunday, May 21, 2017 9:54 PM
    To: usaafricadialogue@googlegroups .com

    Subject: Re: USA Africa Dialogue Series - My take on auctions and contemporary African Art in today's New York Times
     
    I congratulate Chika Okeke-Agulu for his excellent piece in NYT. He makes the point quite persuasively: Africa is doomed to repeat history if it fails to learn from it. But it is not all gloom and doom. To the examples that he cites—in DRC and South Africa—we can add that of Pan-Atlantic University in Lagos, Nigeria, to which Omoba Yemisi Shyllon, a major collector, has donated a substantial chunk of his collections. Additionally, he has also committed to building an art museum on the university campus.

    It is important to note that the interest that Sotheby's and other major auction houses have now begun to show in African art is due substantially to the efforts of African scholars like Chika who have assiduously opened up hitherto protected channels—through monographs, essays in journals, curatorial work, and teaching in Euro-American outlets and spaces. Too, it is gratifying to note that while Euro-American scholars pioneered the scholarship of "traditional" African art, which in turn legitimized the "collection" or, to be frank, rapacious looting of the material culture of African peoples, the narrative of modern and contemporary African art is shaped substantially by African scholars.

    Ongoing trends regarding the production, collection, and promotion of modern and contemporary African art suggest that we must lower our hopes and dependency on governments to provide any leadership in establishing and funding viable art museums in Africa. The future in this area lies in the hands of individuals and private enterprises.

    dele jegede



    dele jegede, Ph.D
    Professor Emeritus
    Miami University. Oxford. OH
    Art Historian. Painter. Cartoonist. Curator
    dele-jegede.com
    Left Aligned Logo Extended

    On Sun, May 21, 2017 at 4:49 AM, Chika Okeke-Agulu <okekeagulu@gmail.com> wrote:
    This Opinion piece in NYT Sunday Review was prompted by last Tuesday's inaugural modern and contemporary African Art auction by Sotheby's:
    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/0 5/20/opinion/sunday/modern-afr ican-art-sothebys.html

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    --


    Warm Regards
    Bisi Silva

    www.ccalagos.org
    Join the CCA,Lagos Library
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    Centre for Contemporary Art, Lagos
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